base voltage formula in power system

0000026395 00000 n AC transmission line construction is more complicated than DC. cosƟ = 1, and only two conductors (positive and negative) are used. From the very beginning of power generation to the user end transmission linesare broadly classified based on different voltage levels. 0000007151 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 100 0 obj <> endobj

0000003365 00000 n This high voltage or extra high voltage level is maintained to transmit the power to a long distant substation. 0000015543 00000 n From this generating substation power is sent to the nearer substation to increase the voltage level higher than previous.

","groupingsymbol":"","readonly":true,"hidefield":false,"fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"dependencies":[{"rule":"","complex":false,"fields":[""]}],"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname28","shortlabel":"","index":24,"ftype":"fCalculated","userhelp":"","userhelpTooltip":false,"csslayout":"column2","title":"R0 (in actual Ohms)","predefined":"","required":false,"size":"medium","toolbar":"default|mathematical","eq":"prec(fieldname26*fieldname9,4)","suffix":"","prefix":"","decimalsymbol":". ","size":"medium","required":false,"toSubmit":"text","merge":0,"choiceSelected":"No - 2","multiple":false,"vChoices":1,"showDep":true,"choices":["Yes","No"],"optgroup":[false,false],"choicesVal":["1","2"],"choicesDep":[["fieldname16","fieldname18","fieldname26","fieldname27","fieldname28","fieldname29","fieldname30"],[]],"fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname18","shortlabel":"","index":5,"ftype":"fnumber","userhelp":"","userhelpTooltip":true,"csslayout":"column3","title":"L-G MVAsc","predefined":"50","predefinedClick":false,"required":true,"readonly":false,"size":"small","thousandSeparator":"","decimalSymbol":". A PU value can readily be converted back to a voltage, power, or any other value as long as the base value is known. ","groupingsymbol":"","readonly":true,"hidefield":false,"fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"dependencies":[{"rule":"","complex":false,"fields":[""]}],"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname27","shortlabel":"","index":23,"ftype":"fCalculated","userhelp":"","userhelpTooltip":false,"csslayout":"column2","title":"X0 (Per unit on base MVA)","predefined":"","required":false,"size":"medium","toolbar":"default|mathematical","eq":"prec(fieldname24*sin(fieldname25),4)","suffix":"","prefix":"","decimalsymbol":". From the very beginning of power generation to the user end transmission lines are broadly classified based on different voltage levels. But this high valued current distributed among various local distribution stations (distribution transformers) nearby. 0000005113 00000 n

","groupingsymbol":"","readonly":true,"hidefield":true,"fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname15","shortlabel":"","index":8,"ftype":"fSectionBreak","userhelp":"","userhelpTooltip":false,"csslayout":"","title":"Results- Positive and Negative Sequence Impedance","fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"dependencies":[{"rule":"","complex":false,"fields":[""]}],"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname1","shortlabel":"","index":9,"ftype":"fCalculated","userhelp":"","userhelpTooltip":false,"csslayout":"","title":"Actual utility impedance in Ohms","predefined":"","required":false,"size":"medium","toolbar":"default|mathematical","eq":"(fieldname14*fieldname14)\/fieldname3","suffix":"","prefix":"","decimalsymbol":". If the power company delivery voltage is 13.2kV, the base voltage will likely be 13.2kV unless otherwise noted. So, S_{base} = 100MVA. 0000006306 00000 n Although the PU system could most likely be used for systems other than electrical systems, it is probably used mostly with electrical values. 0000071295 00000 n 0000025728 00000 n ","min":"0","max":"","formatDynamically":false,"dformat":"number","formats":["digits","number"],"fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname6","shortlabel":"","index":3,"ftype":"fnumber","userhelp":"3-phase fault x\/r","userhelpTooltip":true,"csslayout":"","title":"X\/R ratio ","predefined":"20","predefinedClick":false,"required":true,"readonly":false,"size":"small","thousandSeparator":",","decimalSymbol":".

Use line-line voltage and three phase bolted fault current for MVA.

As voltage level gets stepped down from 132 kV to 11 kV or 33 kV, current level gets higher valued.

x�b```f``Y������� Ȁ �@16�� !�lߠr@HA�A�����L���;�*00�`-`���ͨ�P}`��A� &��}���^��޶��}�o6U>g� Xx��6t����6�K.z{6ڲNLU�Z&W��0I\}Q���J4��Y�k��j�o��/|���v$Os�?�sV�-�m�F^"I'd���6�tT �^׹�I狙Ǐ�4��lj1y�zߙ��-��"WBS�E��U�es����%��J�i g?�]+����"td�z���ϛ2n�u�m=��s�K��M�ћ��7lY"cS&F�.���$)_�:�~��ȅs*^�%��9�f x�N -�]x3�NR}Q��]7$N)rZlН�;_�L��1����v;k(� L�ۭ�|!Qd��kT���I��2�.} Base Voltage (kVB): Often the supply voltage is used as the base voltage.

0000025926 00000 n To get the short circuit parameters when t, Current Limiting Reactor Sizing Calculation, - Current Limiting Reactor Sizing Calculation. ","groupingsymbol":"","readonly":false,"hidefield":true,"fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"dependencies":[{"rule":"","complex":false,"fields":[""]}],"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname4","shortlabel":"","index":10,"ftype":"fCalculated","userhelp":"","userhelpTooltip":false,"csslayout":"","title":"Utility Impedance in Per Unit","predefined":"","required":false,"size":"medium","toolbar":"default|mathematical","eq":"fieldname2\/fieldname3","suffix":"","prefix":"","decimalsymbol":".","groupingsymbol":",","readonly":true,"hidefield":true,"fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"dependencies":[{"rule":"","complex":false,"fields":[""]}],"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname8","shortlabel":"","index":11,"ftype":"fCalculated","userhelp":"","userhelpTooltip":false,"csslayout":"","title":"Theta+","predefined":"","required":false,"size":"medium","toolbar":"default|mathematical","eq":"atan(fieldname6)","suffix":"","prefix":"","decimalsymbol":".","groupingsymbol":"","readonly":true,"hidefield":true,"fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"dependencies":[{"rule":"","complex":false,"fields":[""]}],"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname25","shortlabel":"","index":12,"ftype":"fCalculated","userhelp":"","userhelpTooltip":false,"csslayout":"","title":"Theta-zero","predefined":"","required":false,"size":"medium","toolbar":"default|mathematical","eq":"atan(fieldname16)","suffix":"","prefix":"","decimalsymbol":". It is because of line power loss reduction purpose. %%EOF Here are some of the basics in per unit concept. 0000007693 00000 n

0000003039 00000 n For keeping the voltage of the system in limits, some additional equipment requires which increase the system voltage when it is low and reduces the voltage when it is too high. The standard metric unit of power is the Watt. 0000026494 00000 n

Here are some of the basics in per unit concept. ","min":"1","max":"","formatDynamically":false,"dformat":"number","formats":["digits","number"],"fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname17","shortlabel":"","index":4,"ftype":"fdropdown","userhelp":"","userhelpTooltip":false,"csslayout":"","title":"Line-ground fault current avaialble? After converting to equivalent short circuit MVA use the calculator provided below in case 2 to obtain the utility impedance in R+jX format. Assume a system wide S_{base} of 100MVA. Near to large generating stations and large substations, this ratio will be high. Voltage base in the system … 0000003272 00000 n Answer: Known: Work done = W = 300 J, Time taken t = 10 s.

Base MVA or Base kVA: A widely used base is 100MVA. AC voltage can be stepped up or down as per requirement easily by transformer.

Practically long distant transmission line resistance is comparatively more than medium and short transmission line. If data is available in this format, convert the short circuit current to equivalent short circuit MVA using the equations below. The key is to understand that there are two main parameters that need to be known when dealing with per unit quantities. At the end of the primary distribution, the distribution stations receive this power and step down this voltage level of 11 kV or 33 kV to 415 V (Line Voltage). Generally long distant transmission lines are designed to operate at high voltage, extra high or ultra high voltage level. The hypotenuse of the triangle so formed gives the total impedance (Z) of the circuit. Maintenance of AC substation is easy and cheaper. Problem 1: An electric machine makes use of 300 J of energy to do work in 10s. 140 0 obj<>stream form_structure_1=[[{"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname2","shortlabel":"","index":0,"ftype":"fnumber","userhelp":"Usually 100MVA","userhelpTooltip":true,"csslayout":"column3","title":"MVA Base","predefined":"100","predefinedClick":false,"required":true,"readonly":false,"size":"small","thousandSeparator":"","decimalSymbol":". Step 1: Assume a system base. (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs): Basics, Types & Applications, Diode: Definition, Symbol, and Types of Diodes, Thermistor: Definition, Uses & How They Work, Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram & Working Principle, Lenz’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction: Definition & Formula, At 11 kV or more than that up to 25 kV voltage level is maintained at, This generated power is fed to the generating.

","min":"0","max":"","formatDynamically":false,"dformat":"number","formats":["digits","number"],"fBuild":{},"parent":""},{"form_identifier":"","name":"fieldname3","shortlabel":"","index":2,"ftype":"fnumber","userhelp":"","userhelpTooltip":true,"csslayout":"column3","title":"3-Phase MVAsc","predefined":"400","predefinedClick":false,"required":true,"readonly":false,"size":"small","thousandSeparator":"","decimalSymbol":". Electrical4U is dedicated to the teaching and sharing of all things related to electrical and electronics engineering.

0000005567 00000 n

The various equations relevant to X/R ratio calculations are: Refer to Sequence components if you need additional information on positive, negative and zero sequence parameters.

0000003318 00000 n Voltages are always line-line or phase-phase voltage.

Base MVA or Base kVA: A widely used base is 100MVA. Especially for long distant transmission line high voltage AC is transmitted for several reasons, they are: High Voltage DC is used at extra or ultra high voltage level.

HVDC transmission is used at fixed level of voltage in primary transmission only as it cannot be stepped up or down by transformer. DC voltage cannot be stepped up or down for transmission. 0000024743 00000 n This calculator is based on simple Ohm’s Law.As we have already shared Ohm’s Law (P,I,V,R) Calculator In which you can also calculate three phase current. 0000003225 00000 n startxref Only two conductors (positive and negative) are required as compared to three of AC transmission.

0000002926 00000 n Base Voltage (kV B): Often the supply voltage is used as the base voltage.

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