cross tolerance medical definition

Dependence or physical dependence is also used in the psychopharmacological context in a still narrower sense, referring solely to the development of withdrawal symptoms on cessation of drug use.

Cross-tolerance could occur. If a person keeps using a drug and can’t stop, despite negative consequences from using the drug, they have an … A definite diagnosis of dependence should usually be made only if three or more of the following have been present together at some time during the previous year: Three or more of the following manifestations should have occurred together for at least 1 month or, if persisting for periods of less than 1 month, should have occurred together repeatedly within a 12-month period: Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-2019), Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) ». Antonyms for cross tolerance. This can lead to overdosing and death. ‘Because of cross-tolerance, this high tolerance may extend to substances the patient never abused.’ ‘When convening from one opioid to another, it is recommended that the calculated dose be reduced by 50% to account for incomplete cross-tolerance.’ Psychological or psychic dependence refers to the experience of impaired control over drinking or drug use while physiological or physical dependence refers to tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. Reverse tolerance or drug sensitization is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' increased reaction (positive or negative) to a drug following its repeated use. A cluster of physiological, behavioural, and cognitive phenomena in which the use of a substance or a class of substances takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours that once had greater value. This sensitization does not occur, however, with administration of benzodiazepines or neuroactive steroids, which only exhibit weakening of effect with repeated use. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Cross Timbers Network Marketing Group, Inc. n a herbaceous perennial Eurasian rubiaceous plant, Galium cruciata, with pale yellow flowers and whorls of hairy leaves. 40 synonyms for tolerance: broad-mindedness, charity, sympathy, patience, indulgence, forbearance, permissiveness, magnanimity, open-mindedness, sufferance.... What are synonyms for cross tolerance? A person can easily build up a tolerance to recreational drugs requiring greater doses over time to approximate the original experience. In 1964 a WHO Expert Committee introduced the term ‘dependence’ to replace the terms ‘addiction’ and ‘habituation’. A strong desire or sense of compulsion to take the substance; Difficulties in controlling substance-taking behaviour in terms of its onset, termination, or levels of use; A physiological withdrawal state when substance use has ceased or have been reduced, as evidenced by: the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance; or use of the same (or closely related) substance with the intention of relieving or avoiding withdrawal symptoms; Evidence of tolerance, such that increased doses of the psychoactive substance are required in order to achieve effects originally produced by lower doses (clear examples of this are found in alcohol- and opiate-dependent individuals who may take daily doses sufficient to incapacitate or kill nontolerant users); Progressive neglect of alternative pleasures or interests because of psychoactive substance use, increased amount of time necessary to obtain or take the substance or to recover from its effects; Persisting with substance use despite clear evidence of overtly harmful consequences, such as harm to the liver through excessive drinking, depressive mood states consequent to periods of heavy substance use, or drug-related impairment of cognitive functioning; efforts should be made to determine that the user was actually, or could be expected to be, aware of the nature and extent of the harm.

Psychology Definition of CROSS-TOLERANCE: noun. alcohol dependence, opioid dependence). a drug holiday) that have as objective the reduction of the insensitivity caused by (and after) drug tolerance has been established. With certain classes of drugs, like opioids , tolerance can increase the risk of … The code for attribution links is required. The capacity for a drug, frequently a depressant to the central nervous system, to generate the decreased impacts of …

Some substances are addictive and become necessary for 'normal' body functions requiring medical intervention for … In unqualified form, dependence refers to both physical and psychological elements.

In some cases drug sensitization may also refer to medical interventions (e.g.

Unlike tolerance and dependence, addiction is a disease; but like tolerance and dependence, addiction can result from taking drugs or alcohol repeatedly. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only.

There may be evidence that return to substance use after a period of abstinence leads to a more rapid reappearance of other features of the syndrome than occurs with nondependent individuals. Online Medical Dictionary and glossary with medical definitions, t listing. [5] Not all drugs are subject to reverse tolerance. The only possible option to dissect the stress tolerance mechanism into component part is to distinguish toxicity component of stress from osmotic and ionic component of salt stress i.e., tolerance to osmotic, toxic and ionic imbalance by exploitation of phenomenon of. The two notions are not incompatible, and tolerance may sometimes lead to reverse tolerance. Define crosswort. A central descriptive characteristic of the dependence syndrome is the desire (often strong, sometimes overpowering) to take the psychoactive drugs (which may or not have been medically prescribed), alcohol, or tobacco. Pharmacokinetic tolerance means that you manage to get your blood concentration up to a certain degree, you'll get the same effects whereas pharmacodynamic tolerance means that even if you get your concentration up to the same amount, the response is less because your cells are less responsive to the drug, you need a higher concentration in the blood to get the same effect. Synonyms for cross tolerance in Free Thesaurus. Not all drugs are subject to reverse tolerance. In this restricted sense, cross-dependence is seen as complementary to cross-tolerance, with both referring only to physical symptomatology (neuroadaptation). For example, heavy drinkers initially develop tolerance to alcohol, requiring them to drink larger amounts to achieve a similar effect, but as excessive drinking can cause liver damage, this can then put this group at risk of intoxication when drinking even very small amounts of alcohol. It is a version of the golden rule in that, insofar as we want others to treat us decently, we need to treat them decently as well.

Unfortunately, both professionals and lay people often misuse these terms, leading to the mistaken belief that tolerance, dependence, and addiction are just different names for the same thing.

[6] Sensitization, a form of reverse tolerance, develops rapidly to the positive, euphoric effects of alcohol, but not to the physical effects, such as sedation and respiratory depression, which diminish with prolonged use. https://www.freethesaurus.com/cross+tolerance.

"Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction", "Reverse tolerance and drug sensitization", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reverse_tolerance&oldid=981831347, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 October 2020, at 17:32.

The term can be used generally with reference to the whole range of psychoactive drugs (drug dependence, chemical dependence, substance use dependence), or with specific reference to a particular drug or class of drugs (e.g. There may be evidence that return to substance use after a period of abstinence leads to a more rapid reappearance of other features of the syndrome than occurs with nondependent individuals.

Tolerance is a virtue. In biologically-oriented discussion, dependence is often used to refer only to physical dependence. This is the opposite of drug tolerance, in which the effect or the subject's reaction decreases following its repeated use. crosswort synonyms, crosswort pronunciation, crosswort translation, English dictionary definition of crosswort. It is important to understand the meaning of the terms tolerance, dependence, and addiction when discussing substance abuse and the use of prescription medications such as opioid painkillers. Copy the code below and paste it where you want the visualization of this word to be shown on your page: Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Cross Tolerance Mechanisms of Osmotic and Ionic Stress Adapted Cell Lines of Rice Towards Salinity, Review: abiotic stress sensing and GABA response in plants, Concurrent alcohol and tobacco dependence: mechanisms and treatment. In this restricted sense, cross-dependence is seen as complementary to cross-tolerance, with both referring only to physical symptomatology (neuroadaptation).

The Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Health Problems (ICD-10) defines the dependence syndrome as being a cluster of physiological, behavioural, and cognitive phenomena in which the use of a substance or a class of substances takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours that once had greater value. Reverse tolerance or drug sensitization is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' increased reaction (positive or negative) to a drug following its repeated use. This is tolerance to other drugs in the same class. A central descriptive characteristic of the dependence syndrome is the desire (often strong, sometimes overpowering) to take psychoactive drugs (which may or may not have been medically prescribed), alcohol, or tobacco.

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