doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2016.09.002, Reyes-Alcaraz, A., Lee, Y. N., Son, G. H., Kim, N. H., Kim, D. K., Yun, S., et al. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2826.2002.00846.x. Endocrinology 155, 1864–1873. Mice homozygous for disruptions in this gene display a reduction in exploratory activity. IPR000276 G protein-coupled receptor, rhodopsin-like. 3 to 4 h after SG2A administration on the last day, blood and brain samples were collected (Figure 2A). (2016). (2005). UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Successful delivery of SG2A to the brain via the i.n. This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals. Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Sci. The fear memory consolidation was determined 24 h later by placing the mice in the same chamber without auditory cues (context fear memory test) or in a different chamber with the auditory cues (auditory fear memory test). Natl. administration. (2011). These data demonstrate that GAL2 receptor stimulation excites POMC neurons. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. The sections were washed, mounted, and observed under a confocal microscope (Leica TCS SP8; Leica Microsystems, Buffalo Grove, IL, United States).
However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). Elevated cerebrospinal fluid and blood concentrations of oxytocin following its intranasal administration in humans. Dissociable roles of prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, ventral hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala in the expression and extinction of conditioned fear. Metab. Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of SG2A i.n. J. Physiol. ; 97% (+)-5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine; Sigma-Aldrich] twice per day (8-h interval) for 2 days prior to sacrifice. SY, AR-A, Y-NL, HY, and JC performed the research. Neurosci., 18 April 2019 (D) Recognition memory by SG2A in the Y maze. Cloning and expression of the human galanin receptor GalR2. See Supplementary Information for Western blotting, electrophysiology and determination of α-MSH secretion in POMC neurons. Galanin receptor 2, (GAL 2) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the GALR2 gene. It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion, inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial gastrointestinal motility. (2014). Spexin is a novel human peptide that reduces adipocyte uptake of long chain fatty acids and causes weight loss in rodents with diet-induced obesity. J. Neuroendocrinol. Total activities were not significantly different among the experimental groups (Supplementary Figure 1C). doi: 10.1016/s0306-4522(98)00151-1, Yamaguchi, T., Danjo, T., Pastan, I., Hikida, T., and Nakanishi, S. (2013). Indeed, our study showed that repetitive SG2A administration significantly increased TPH protein levels in the DRN of CORTI mice. route, producing results comparable to those obtained with i.c.v. 24 h after memory acquisition, freezing behaviors were scored during 20 trials of a 30-s tone without foot shock in the distinct context in the presence or absence of SG2A. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edn. Drug news & perspectives, 2006.
The Gene Ontology (GO) project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:
Inferred from Direct AssayA memory-based model of posttraumatic stress disorder: evaluating basic assumptions underlying the PTSD diagnosis. Physiol. Neurosci. FASEB J. In conclusion, SG2A exerts a rapid onset of effects toward relieving anxiety-, depression-like, and feeding behaviors and suppressing fear memory. have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen GALR-2, 17q25.1; It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion, inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial gastrointestinal motility. Galanin is an important neuromodulator present in the brain, gastrointestinal system, and hypothalamopituitary axis. As SG2A exerted anxiolytic effects, we further determined the effects of SG2A on fear memory consolidation and extinction using the contextual and auditory-cued Pavlovian fear conditioning model. High levels of blood corticosterone were maintained for 21 days in CORTI mice, regardless of SG2A administration (Supplementary Figure 1A), and the body weights of CORTI mice were significantly lower than the sham-operated/vehicle-treated (Sham-Veh) mice (Figure 2B).
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