One of these days I might test the Apple Nano as well. I discuss each of these in turn in a trio of articles on output power, gain and output impedance. I'm not totally up on how to force Vista to select a sound card, but didn't see anything that would work. These headphones will definitely be able to play your music to the proper volume levels. I tried a couple of other resistors also, of slightly differing numbers.
It also increases decay times and ringing, as the transducer’s resonances are less controlled. One thing does seem to be clear-the last two years has seen a paradigm shift from conventional voice coil drivers to orthodynamic/planars thanks to HiFi-Man and Audeze and now the amp manufacturers have to play catch-up. The E9 is cheap by audiophile headphone amp standards, but if you're already happy it might be a waste of money to upgrade. Hi, awesome stuff about impedances and frequency responses.I was wondering about the power transfer theorem. one tenth of the driver's distortion at a particular frequency, not 10% absolute THD) with a damping factor of 2.5, but it also depends on the headphones. But when the output impedance starts to approach the speaker, or headphone impedance, damping factor can matter.I'm only suggesting a damping factor of 8 or better with headphones. – Focusrite Audio Engineering, Recording with tablets & smartphones (iOS & Android), Low impedance DI box output vs high impedance audio interface input. Some of the most highly regarded headphones have relatively low impedances including several models from Denon, AKG, Etymotic, Ultimate Ears, Westone, HiFiMAN and Audeze. You can read the first article here: O2 Headphone Amp, Thanks again for the info above re: in-line resistive attenuators. This is on top of the RLC circuit that makes up the headphone drivers themselves. In electronics "R" is technically DC resistance and "Z" is AC impedance. Impedance and Amplification: You must have come across the term impedance quite often. >I'm only suggesting a damping factor of 8 or better with headphones.Why exactly 8? Many, correctly implemented, will do a decent job with higher impedance headphones (as in the better Cmoy designs).As for the Xonar vs the E9 that's hard to answer as I don't have personal experience with either one. But as long as it's consistently inaccurate you should get a relative difference which is all you need.A better strategy is to download, or make, a 100 hz test tone WAV file, play it, and measure that.
The line input to your amplifier is probably 10k ohms or more. If you like the E17 you don't need an O2.
In reality the usual result is that you get a bit less than +1 dB of bass boost if the output impedance of the amp is around the same as your headphones' impedance. Your Shures just need a source with a low output impedance, flat frequency response, and low noise. If Headroom, InnerFidelity, etc. Here are two graphs of the Sennheiser HD650 impedance. It should be noted that this damping factor is representative only at the transducer’s nominal impedance. I'm sure many hope nobody will ever measure their products and publish the results. This drop can be big enough to make driving low impedance headphones difficult. Clever segue :-) I look forward to the next O2 article!
As it turns out, the min/max range of impedance over the audible range is somewhat narrow: 30-37 ohms (it peaks at about 150 hz). And higher-end full size cans are most often designed for sources that follow the 1/8th Rule or have a near zero output impedance. Do you think a 5 ohms output impedance is low enough to preserve the tonal balance of not wild balanced armatures (By not wild i mean armatures whose lowest impedance is higher than 20 Ohms), It really depends on the headphones. Some of it is accurate and some is pure myth. If you doubt that, at least consider following a few of the links in Subjective vs Objective.There's all sorts of well documented evidence when we know what we're listening to, we all hear differences that don't exist (try the Mcgurk Effect video link for just one example). But the resistance the headphones are connected to would have to be less than the amp's output impedance (47 ohms for the Behringer). Hmmm, I figured it couldn't be right. Depends on taste. High pressure usually means low flow and visa versa. Here the SPL differences are tamed by adding series resistance.Methinks there must be something else going on here? That means when the driver is supposed to stop moving it might not. If their resonance was an octave lower down around 50 hz that would be very different but most full size headphones have a much higher resonance frequency.And yeah, those being critical of the O2's 3+ V/uS slew rates need to step up and objectively defend their position with either credible science or blind listening tests. Benchmark Media is a pro studio company so is Violectric. Sometimes accuracy is also rated in "digits".If you are genuinely adding a 16 ohm resistor properly in parallel, and the voltage reading of a 60hz signal does not change, it's likely it has a very low output impedance. Sadly, many of them cut corners anyway and rely on subjective hype, snake oil, and myth to sell their amps.
The bigger the impedance the more impedance you will have the more power you need to drive your audio gear. Headphone outputs should be tested at multiple impedances, but if you have to pick just one, 32 ohms is probably the best bet. I also tried it on my laptop's headphone out which did reach .5V but again, no change with the resistor. I've had a lot of requests to test an E9 so perhaps one will find its way onto my bench soon?My general rule applies here.
The USB powered units can handle up to 600 ohms. If the output impedance is not zero, the voltage produced by the source will be reduced when a load is connected. They either don't get it or they don't care. I have the resistor hanging off one of the the 3.5 jack's stereo outputs, then my red probe goes on the end of the resistor and the black probe to 3.5 jack's ground. Can you ruin your headphones or device? At their minimum impedance of about 9 ohms it’s 9 / (9 + 43) = 0.17 V = – 5.6 dB, At their maximum impedance of 90 ohms it’s 90 / (90 + 43) = 0.68 V = +6.2 dB. But I'm wondering if your resistor is the wrong value? Maybe that's the issue. Great Write up.....Got one question just to be sureI have 2 sound cards 1 rme rpm head phone output impedance: 30 Ohm1 rme multiface phone output impedance: 75 OhmTHe headphones i have are sony MDR-7506 with Impedance of 63 OhmsBoth the above sound cards are not good for these headphone are they.....Can you advise what my options are to correct so i get the right ohms out for the headphones.Kind regards Harn. Thanks - upon plugging the U3 in again this morning, I immediately got the standard "ba-bump" system sound over the U3 that indicated something had been plugged into the computer. You might want to save a copy (highlight Ctrl-C) of your comments before submitting in case something goes wrong. >It would, however, be interesting to compare impulse response from a low and high impedance source with a microphone and test set up that had good impulse fidelity. Parallel headphones is a good question. It can drive the LCD-2 with ease and has an output impedance around 0.5 ohms. That's usually not a good thing for all the reasons I mention in this article. For a variety of reasons chips often don't meet all their specs depending on how they're implemented. Is this true?Thanks! I will closely monitor how things go with your ODA and I hope to try one out one day with the Audeze LCD-2s. Looks like no one’s replied in a while. What about other frequencies? An op-amp-based headphone output that's "working too hard" can certainly mess up the soundstage, add distortion, etc. If the output impedance is not zero, the amplifier’s output voltage is reduced when a load is connected. The Etymotic HF5s are 16 ohms so the max output impedance is 16/8 = 2 ohms. So I suppose anything is possible. Mechanical damping is provided by the physical characteristics of the transducer, e.g. The UCA202 has fixed 47 ohm series resistors in the output and the volume, like nearly all, is before the op amp.You're partly correct about low impedance headphones and wanting a flat impedance curve. And the bass sounds significantly more boomy and less defined when used with a high impedance source.
Just like a car suspension that can better follow the road, an optimally damped headphone driver can better follow the audio signal.
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