palestine greece

However, Judah was now the only Israelite kingdom left, surrounded entirely by pagan peoples. Aelia Capitolina came again to be called Jerusalem, and its bishop became one of the four or five most senior bishops – or patriarchs – of the Christian Church. The two last were certamly helped to no small extent by the influx of Spanish and other Western Jews. "[144] Of the Jewish group, 76% were Sabras (born in Israel); the rest were olim (immigrants)—16% from Europe, the former Soviet republics, and the Americas, and 8% from Asia and Africa, including the Arab countries. In this situation, the Hasmonean kings expanded their borders drastically, annexing the neighbouring territories of Transjordan (including the ten Hellenized cities of the Decapolis), Samaria, Galilee and Edom (now called Idumaea). Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (L) and Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, November 25, 2015. From the mid-8th century all the kingdoms of the region came under increasing threat from the expanding Assyrian empire. Such population exchanges were an integral part of Assyrian imperial policy, as a way of breaking old centres of power.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'timemaps_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_8',123,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'timemaps_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_9',123,'0','1'])); According to an Assyrian inscription, the number of Israelites transported from their homeland amounted to just over 27,000. In the 7th century, Jerusalem expanded dramatically. Towns and cities thrived, farmland was extended by irrigation projects, and the population expanded. These small states were constantly quarrelling amongst themselves, appealing to their Egyptian government to settled their disputes. The Samaritans, already (in their own lights at least) adherents of the Jewish religion, remained as a distinct population after this time. The term and its derivates are used more than 250 times in Masoretic-derived versions of the Hebrew Bible, of which 10 uses are in the Torah, with undefined boundaries, and almost 200 of the remaining references are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel. They appear in Egyptian history as the “Hyksos”. With the conquest of the Babylonian empire by Cyrus the Great, king of the Persians (in 539 BCE), Palestine passed from Babylonian to Persian control. The loss of their political independence was nothing compared to the challenge to their dearly-held beliefs. It took the Romans – supported by troops raised and led by Herod – three years of hard fighting to re-gain control of Judea. To the people of the time such divisions would have been meaningless, however. When Antony was defeated and killed in a civil war with his rival, Octavian, Herod had to win over the new master of the Roman world. Herod ruled Judea for 37 years. David captured the Canaanite city-state of Jebus, and renamed it Jerusalem (“City of Peace”). The division of Israel into two kingdoms weakened them both. Urbanism, along with Bronze Age technology, had presumably arrived in this region via trade links with Mesopotamia. [43], In the 330s BCE, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered the region, which changed hands several times during the wars of the Diadochi and later Syrian Wars. [67] Between 1071 and 1073, Palestine was captured by the Great Seljuq Empire,[68] only to be recaptured by the Fatimids in 1098. The councils would have governed their cities along with a large area of countryside around them. Military and religious leaders, known in the Bible as “judges”, appeared from time to time, recognized by more than one tribe, and in some cases perhaps by all of them, to deal with particular threats. For a brief period, the kingdom of Judah benefited from the resulting vacuum of power in the Middle East by expanding its own borders to take in much of the old territory of Israel. These were the Philistines, and their five coastal cities, Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron and Gath, were to form a formidable confederacy in the area. For those who remained in Judea, life was tough. After Solomon’s time, most of the Israelite tribes threw off their allegiance to the royal family in Jerusalem. 1. the Palestinian territories). The Samaritans were not so fortunate. None of these areas had been part of a Jewish (or Israelite) state for hundreds of years. Israel's ongoing military occupation of the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and East Jerusalem continues to be the world's longest military occupation in modern times.

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