Various phospholipid classes with different polar moieties are found in nature. They are consumed with food but, for industrial purposes, only two sources are of importance, i.e. Marine phospholipids can be defined as phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in cell membranes.
As natural antioxidants, phospholipids are widely used as emulsifiers to control lipid oxidation. Domestic development and utilization of plant phospholipids are mainly focused on soybean phospholipids and rapeseed phospholipids. Phospholipids are reported as natural antioxidants extracted from both animals and plants. As a result, initiation and propagation steps of lipid oxidation may be accelerated. Lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is a major component constituting about 35-40% of the total phospholipids and the rest being about 25% phosphatidylethanolamine, about 15% phosphatidyl inositol, 5-10% phosphatidic acid and the rest is a composite of all the minor phospholipids compounds. Therefore, crude oil produced by extraction of crushed soybeans contains about 3 % phospholipids.
However, some factors including the presence of unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids, and critical micelle concentration should be taken into consideration to avoid oxidative effects. Act as building blocks of the biological cell membranes in virtually all organisms 2.
In recent years, high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been extensively used to quantify phospholipids.
", Fats, Steroids, and Other Examples of Lipids, What Are Amphipathic Molecules? Therefore, China should attach great importance to research on the production process and product development of modified peanut phospholipids. Phosphatidic acid, the parent molecule of phospholipids, is formed by the joining of 3-glycerol-phosphate and a diglyceride; then the base (choline or other) is linked to the phosphate group of phosphatidic acid to form phosphatidyl choline (or other phospholipids).
The hydrophobic tails face away from both the cytosol and extracellular fluid. Phospholipids are used in cell to cell communications as they are involved in signal mechanisms that trigger actions such as blood clotting and apoptosis.
Phospholipids constitute 1-3% of crude soybean oil. Other crude oils are not so rich in phospholipids as they are more diluted with co-extracted neutral lipids.
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